The computer is programmed to make a judgement based on certain data programmed into it's software.
The ability to choose one judgement in favour of others is more complex, but still a computer can be programmed to do that also.
Perhaps what a computer cannot be programmed to do is actually experience what it is like to choose out of free will what judgement to make. It is like it has been perpetually hypnotised to do what it is told.
Part of the programming is deciding based on certain data what judgement to make, and this can vary based on what value systems are installed within the programming.
The programmer holds the 'true judgement' in their work. The computer is really just an extension of the human touch put into some electronic gizmo. The 'relationship between creator and created'.
The ability to judge may have well been installed in us from 'our' creator. I guess it depends where you draw the lines between an electronic device made by man, and a living electronic circuit created by something almost out of our comprehension.
Even if we do get to judge for ourselves, other things (and other people) have their influence upon our judgement. We are hypnotised by some things. We are faced with obstacles, and lack of mindfulness.
I guess part of it comes back to 'Free Will'...
As to standardising judgement the best we could hope for could be a 'system of thresholds', as we are all born different, have different needs and different wants, and other things that make us unique. We need to personalise our existence as much as possible, but at the same time appreciate what is true and good for all.
In regards to priorities and beliefs themselves, we could achieve much through using the power of self-knowledge (involving things we know to be true from experience) combined with the use of polygraphs (to cross-reference our personal knowledge sets). Here we may be able to devise a system of beliefs and from common sense derive priorities. From there laws could be adjusted accordingly, but most likely no further than a 'system of thresholds'. The current laws were derived from our word in regards to our self-knowledge and the knowledge of others, it's just that we could take the concept of judgement further by, ironically, depending on the help of a piece of electrical equipment.
NB: Sorry for the length of my reply...